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Hyper-stretchable self-powered sensors based on electrohydrodynamically printed, self-similar piezoelectric nano/microfibers

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A B S T R A C T
Hyper-stretchable self-powered sensors with high sensitivity and excellent stability using low-cost, printable,
organic nanomaterials are attractive for immense applications. Here we present self-similar piezoelectric nano/
microfibers for a hyper-stretchable self-powered sensor that demonstrates high stretchability (> 300%), low
detection limit (0.2 mg), and excellent durability (> 1400 times at strain 150%). A proposed helix electrohydrodynamic
printing technique (HE-Printing) in combination with in-surface self-organized buckling is used
to fabricate aligned self-similar poly[vinylidene fluoride] (PVDF) nano/microfibers with in situ mechanical
stretch and electrical poling to produce excellent piezoelectric properties. The hyper-stretchable self-powered
sensors have shown repeatable and consistent electrical outputs with detection limit an order of magnitude
smaller than the other stretchable sensors. Additionally, such sensors can simultaneously measure the own status
and the extra multiply physical quantities, such as lateral pressure, impulse rate and applied strain. The high
sensitivity can be further utilized to remotely detect human motion in addition to sensing a piece of paper with
1 mm × 1 mm. Further the fiber-based sensors can avoid the catastrophic collapse or wrinkling of serpentine
film-based structure during stretching.

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