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Coffee ring elimination and crystalline control of electrohydrodynamically printed high-viscosity perovskites†

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Lead halide perovskites show enormous potential for display because of their tunable emission, high
color purity, strong photoluminescence and electroluminescence. However, it is a huge challenge to
achieve high resolution patterning with perfect crystalline morphologies of perovskite crystals. In this
work, we combine a high-viscosity perovskite precursor with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and powerful
electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing to fabricate in situ crystallized high-resolution microarrays with
perfect morphologies. Adding PVP contributes to reducing capillary flow to eliminate coffee rings and
form spatial confinement during evaporation, limiting the flow of ions and the size of perovskite grains.
However, it increases the solution viscosity, which makes printing rather difficult. This problem is solved
by introducing EHD printing, which has superior advantages in high-viscosity ink printing and highresolution
patterning. Through collaborative optimization of the printing and crystallization process, the
as-printed patterns and luminous images show satisfactory uniformity and high controllability in micron
dimensions, and exhibit excellent compatibility with flexible substrates. This strategy is promising for
wide-ranging types of optoelectronic devices.




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